Implementing the challenge handler in Android applications

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Overview

When trying to access a protected resource, the server (the security check) sends back to the client a list containing one or more challenges for the client to handle.
This list is received as a JSON object, listing the security check name with an optional JSON of additional data:

{
  "challenges": {
    "SomeSecurityCheck1":null,
    "SomeSecurityCheck2":{
      "some property": "some value"
    }
  }
}

The client must then register a challenge handler for each security check.
The challenge handler defines the client-side behavior that is specific to the security check.

Creating the challenge handler

A challenge handler is a class that handles challenges sent by the MobileFirst Server, such as displaying a login screen, collecting credentials, and submitting them back to the security check.

In this example, the security check is PinCodeAttempts which was defined in Implementing the CredentialsValidationSecurityCheck. The challenge sent by this security check contains the number of remaining attempts to login (remainingAttempts) and an optional errorMsg.

Create a Java class that extends SecurityCheckChallengeHandler:

public class PinCodeChallengeHandler extends SecurityCheckChallengeHandler {

}

Handling the challenge

The minimum requirement from the SecurityCheckChallengeHandler protocol is to implement a constructor and a handleChallenge method, which prompts the user to provide the credentials. The handleChallenge method receives the challenge as a JSONObject.

Add a constructor method:

public PinCodeChallengeHandler(String securityCheck) {
    super(securityCheck);
}

In this handleChallenge example, an alert prompts the user to enter the PIN code:

@Override
public void handleChallenge(JSONObject jsonObject) {
    Log.d("Handle Challenge", jsonObject.toString());
    Log.d("Failure", jsonObject.toString());
    Intent intent = new Intent();
    intent.setAction(Constants.ACTION_ALERT_MSG);
    try{
        if (jsonObject.isNull("errorMsg")){
            intent.putExtra("msg", "This data requires a PIN code.\n Remaining attempts: " + jsonObject.getString("remainingAttempts"));
            broadcastManager.sendBroadcast(intent);
        } else {
            intent.putExtra("msg", jsonObject.getString("errorMsg") + "\nRemaining attempts: " + jsonObject.getString("remainingAttempts"));
            broadcastManager.sendBroadcast(intent);
        }
    } catch (JSONException e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
    }
}

The implementation of alertMsg is included in the sample application.

If the credentials are incorrect, you can expect the framework to call handleChallenge again.

Submitting the challenge’s answer

Once the credentials have been collected from the UI, use the SecurityCheckChallengeHandler’s submitChallengeAnswer(JSONObject answer) method to send an answer back to the security check. In this example, PinCodeAttempts expects a property called pin containing the submitted PIN code:

submitChallengeAnswer(new JSONObject().put("pin", pinCodeTxt.getText()));

Cancelling the challenge

In some cases, such as clicking a Cancel button in the UI, you want to tell the framework to discard this challenge completely.

To achieve this, use the SecurityCheckChallengeHandler’s cancel() method.

Handling failures

Some scenarios may trigger a failure (such as maximum attempts reached). To handle these, implement the SecurityCheckChallengeHandler’s handleFailure method.
The structure of the JSONObject passed as a parameter greatly depends on the nature of the failure.

@Override
public void handleFailure(JSONObject jsonObject) {
    Log.d("Failure", jsonObject.toString());
    Intent intent = new Intent();
    intent.setAction(Constants.ACTION_ALERT_ERROR);
    try {
        if (!jsonObject.isNull("failure")) {
            intent.putExtra("errorMsg", jsonObject.getString("failure"));
            broadcastManager.sendBroadcast(intent);
        } else {
            intent.putExtra("errorMsg", "Unknown error");
            broadcastManager.sendBroadcast(intent);
        }
    } catch (JSONException e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
    }
}

The implementation of alertError is included in the sample application.

Handling successes

In general, successes are automatically processed by the framework to allow the rest of the application to continue.

Optionally, you can also choose to do something before the framework closes the challenge handler flow, by implementing the SecurityCheckChallengeHandler’s handleSuccess method. Here again, the content and structure of the JSONObject passed as a parameter depends on what the security check sends.

In the PinCodeAttempts sample application, the JSONObject does not contain any additional data and so handleSuccess is not implemented.

Registering the challenge handler

For the challenge handler to listen for the right challenges, you must tell the framework to associate the challenge handler with a specific security check name.

To do so, initialize the challenge handler with the security check as follows:

PinCodeChallengeHandler pinCodeChallengeHandler = new PinCodeChallengeHandler("PinCodeAttempts", this);

You must then register the challenge handler instance:

WLClient client = WLClient.createInstance(this);
client.registerChallengeHandler(pinCodeChallengeHandler);

Note: Creating a WLClient instance and registering the challenge handler should happen only once in the entire application lifecycle. It is recommended to use the Android Application class to do it.

Sample application

The sample PinCodeAndroid is an Android application that uses WLResourceRequest to get a bank balance.
The method is protected with a PIN code, with a maximum of 3 attempts.

Click to download the SecurityAdapters Maven project.
Click to download the Android project.

Sample usage

Follow the sample’s README.md file for instructions.

Sample application

Last modified on January 25, 2017